Robinson is himself a Pulitzer winner, getting the prize last year for commentary on the 2008 presidential campaign. He started his column in February 2005.
Columbia University, which administers the prizes, announced Robinson's election on Thursday.
Robinson has been at the Post for 30 years, working in a number of positions including reporter, foreign correspondent and associate editor.
Pulitzer board members serve three-year terms. The board has 20 members -- 18 voting and two nonvoting members.