Black Boxes Found After Plane Lifted From Hudson

View Comments (
)
|
Email
|
Print

    NEWSLETTERS

    AP
    The wreckage of US Airways Flight 1549 is lifted from the waters of lower Manhattan Saturday evening in New York.

    Salvage crews successfully hoisted the downed US Airways jetliner from the Hudson River late Saturday, exposing a torn and shredded underbelly that revealed the force with which the aircraft hit the water.

    Investigators retrieved the plane's black boxes, which were then filled with fresh water, packed into blue coolers and were to be sped immediately to Washington.

    Remarkably, some parts of the aircraft appeared remarkably untouched, with much of the top half of the aircraft appearing as though it might be ready for takeoff.

    The underside presented a sharp contrast: Some pieces of metal dropped from the plane as it was maneuvered in the darkness, and the destroyed right engine appeared as though the outside had been peeled off.

    After a day of waiting, the hoisting only took a few hours. Investigators on the barge circled the dented jetliner, examining the damage. An emergency slide still hung from the plane; nearby, a compartment door was open, with some luggage still visible inside. A gash extended from the base of the plane toward the windows. And in places, the skin of the aircraft was simply gone.

    Earlier, crews dove underwater to thread five large slings around the plane and through holes they drilled in the wings. The recovery work was slowed by the waterlogged craft's immense weight — estimated to be 1 million pounds while below the surface.

    The conditions were treacherous, with the temperature dipping to 6 degrees and giant chunks of ice forming around the plane by midday. Divers who went into the river were sprayed down with hot water during breaks on shore.

    With the workers operating by floodlight late into the evening, the mood on the shoreline turned festive as the plane began to rise from the water. Following the long work to secure the plane, people shook hands and investigators took snapshots, while police helicopters hovered overhead.

    The craft had been wedged against a sea wall. Only when it was hoisted by the large crane and slowly rotated, did it come free. At one point, onlookers could hear a loud bang, as the craft apparently bumped into the wall.

    Also on Saturday, the pilot of  the crippled US Airways jetliner told investigators that he made a split-second decision to ditch in the Hudson River because trying to return to the airport after birds knocked out both engines could have led to a "catastrophic" crash in a populated neighborhood.

    Capt. Chesley B. "Sully" Sullenberger said that in the few minutes he had to decide where to set down the powerless plane Thursday afternoon, he felt it was "too low, too slow" and near too many buildings to go anywhere else, according to the National Transportation Safety Board account of his testimony.

    The pilot and his first officer provided their first account to NTSB investigators Saturday of what unfolded inside US Airways Flight 1549 in the moments after it slammed into a flock of birds and lost both engines.

    Co-pilot Jeff Skiles, who was flying the plane at takeoff, saw the birds coming in perfect formation, and made note of it. Sullenberger looked up, and in an instant his windscreen was filled with big, dark-brown birds.

    "His instinct was to duck," said NTSB board member Kitty Higgins, recounting their interview. Then there was a thump, the smell of burning birds, and silence as both aircraft engines cut out.

    The account illustrated how quickly things deteriorated after the bump at 3,000 feet, and the pilots' swift realization that returning to LaGuardia or getting to another airport was impossible.

    With both engines out, Higgins said, flight attendants described complete silence in the cabin, "like being in a library." A smoky haze and the odor of burning metal or electronics filled the plane.

    The blow had come out of nowhere. The NTSB said radar data confirmed that the aircraft intersected a group of "primary targets," almost certainly birds, as the jet climbed over the Bronx. Those targets had not been on the radar screen of the air traffic controller who approved the departure, Higgins said.

    After the bird impact, Sullenberger told investigators he immediately took over flying from his co-poilot and made a series of command decisions.

    Returning to LaGuardia, he quickly realized, was out. So was nearby Teterboro Airport, where he had never flown before, and which would require him to take the jet over densely populated northern New Jersey.

    "We can't do it," he told air traffic controllers. "We're gonna be in the Hudson."

    The co-pilot kept trying to restart the engines, while checking off emergency landing procedures on a three-page list that the crew normally begins at 35,000 feet.

    Sullenberger guided the gliding jet over the George Washington Bridge and looked for a place to land.

    Pilots are trained to set down near a ship if they have to ditch, so they can be rescued before sinking, and Sullenberger picked a stretch of water near Manhattan's commuter ferry terminals. Rescuers were able to arrive within minutes.

    It all happened so fast, the crew never threw the aircraft's "ditch switch," which seals off vents and holes in the fuselage to make it more seaworthy.

    Teams worked into the evening to remove the plane, with floodlights shining down onto the scene and emergency boats surrounding the aircraft.

    The investigation played out as authorities released the first video showing the spectacular crash landing. Security cameras on a Manhattan pier captured the Airbus A320 as it descended in a controlled glide, then threw up a spray as it slid across the river on its belly.

    The video also illustrated the swift current that pulled the plane down the river as passengers walked out onto the wings and ferry boats moved in for the rescue.

    Authorities also released a frantic 911 call that captured the drama of the flight. A man from the Bronx called at 3:29 p.m. Thursday, three minutes after the plane took off.

    "Oh my God! It was a big plane. I heard a big boom just now. We looked up, and the plane came straight over us, and it was turning. Oh my God!" the caller told 911.

    At almost the same moment, the pilot told air-traffic controllers that he would probably "end up in the Hudson."

    Sullenberger was seen entering a conference room of a lower Manhattan hotel, surrounded by federal investigators, before his interview Saturday. The silver-haired pilot was wearing a white shirt and slacks and seemed composed.

    When a reporter approached him for comment, one of the officials responded: "No chance."

    NBC said "Today" show host Matt Lauer would interview Sullenberger from Washington on Monday, a day before President-elect Barack Obama is inaugurated.

    His wife, Lorrie Sullenberger said "the enormity of the situation" had only begun to sink in Friday night as she watched the news.

    "It was actually the first time that I cried since the whole incident started," she said on "The Early Show" on CBS. She also said the family was making plans to attend the inauguration.

    She suggested the happy ending was good for the country.

    "I think everybody needed some good news, frankly," she said.

    Experts say the threat that birds have long posed to aircraft has been exacerbated by two new factors over the past 20 years: Airline engines have been designed to run quieter, meaning that birds can't hear them coming, and many birds living near airports have given up migrating because they find the area hospitable year-round.

    Canada geese, one of the most dangerous birds for aircraft, historically migrate not because of cold but a lack of food. Winter weather kills the grass they eat and sources of fresh water freeze over.

    But in developed areas, there is often both food and grass year round, found in parks and golf courses.

    And there isn't much that be done in the engineering of jet engines to armor them against a strike without hurting their ability to generate thrust.

    The most vulnerable part of the engine is the fan, which can be bent or smashed by an ingested bird. Pieces of busted blade then rip through the rest of the engine like shrapnel.

    Engines have been fortified so that they can stay intact in the event of such a strike, but they usually cannot be restarted once they are damaged, said Archie Dickey, an associate professor of aviation environmental science at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University's campus in Prescott, Ariz.

    He said hits hard enough to cause a total failure are rare, only happening two or three times a year worldwide.

    "That's extremely rare," Dickey said. "The chance of it hitting both engines, I'd guess it is less than 1 percent."

    Most bird strikes happen within five miles of an airport, lower than 1,000 feet, as planes are taking off or landing. Aircraft hit thousands of birds every year, but they usually bounce off harmlessly.

    The US Airways flight hit the birds at 3,000 feet, the NTSB says. That caused a total engine failure, and the plane hit the river 3½ minutes later.

    "Brace! Brace! Head down!" the flight attendants shouted to the passengers.

    Then, they were in the water. Two flight attendants likened it to a hard landing — nothing more. There was one impact, no bounce, then a gradual deceleration.

    "Neither one of them realized that they were in the water," Higgins said.

    The plane came to a stop. The captain gave a one-word command, "Evacuate."